Twin Roots runs a venture called Programming Classroom, an educational website geared towards programmers and offers seminar quality learning materials at very affordable prices.
In early 2006, owner Joel Marcey's life changed forever. He and his spouse had twin baby boys. After that day, life became ever-changing -- A Constant Flux, if you will. During this crazy time, Joel decided to leave the corporate world in order to start his own business. There were many reasons for this, one of which was the flexibility of time in order to maintain an appropriate life with his kids. So the "root" of the business in many ways came about because of the "twins".
Ecma Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) Standard - 6th Edition
In August, 2000, the specification for the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) was submitted to the international standardization organization Ecma. As a result, Ecma formed a task group (TG3) within TC39 (now moved to TC49), its technical committee responsible for programming languages and application development. This specification became known as Ecma-335.
Since the initial submission, various Ecma member companies and individual contributors have produced three editions of the CLI standard, one in 2002, one in 2006, and one in 2010. Each Ecma edition was also submitted and approved by the International Standards Organization (ISO), specifically ISO/IEC JTC 1. The Ecma CLI specification went through the ISO/IEC JTC 1 Fast-Track process and the resulting document is referred to as ISO/IEC 23271. The 3rd edition of ISO/IEC 23271 was approved and published by ISO/IEC JTC 1 in February 2012. Because Ecma adopts the equivalent ISO document as another edition, the Ecma-335 CLI standard became the 6th edition in June 2012.
A differently formatted version of each of these documents is available at either Ecma or ISO:
- ISO/IEC standards and TR (3rd edition). To monitor the progress of the publications, please visit ISO
- ECMA standards and TR (6th edition). To monitor the progress of the publications, please visit Ecma
Work on the 5th edition of Ecma-335 CLI standard began in mid-2009. The TC49-TG3 task group worked on extending both the virtual machine and class libraries of the CLI specification. Improvements were made to clarify existing elements of the specification. Many of these improvements are the result of feedback received from outside the task group, for which the task group is grateful.
In December 2010, the Ecma General Assembly (GA) approved the 5th edition as an official Ecma standard, replacing the 2006 4th Edition. The standard consists of the six (6) partitions of the CLI specification, the class library XML file and a technical report (TR/84) containing Word and PDF documents of the class libraries. Note that the Generics technical report (TR/89) has been obsoleted as most of its contents have been subsumed by the official CLI specification. In February 2012, ISO/IEC JTC 1 approved the Ecma 5th edition as a 3rd edition of its standard with minor changes. Subsequently, Ecma, as is process, adopted the ISO 3rd edition as its 6th edition. You can find the freely available official 6th Edition here: http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-335.htm
To participate in the standardization process, contact your organization's Ecma representative. If your company does not currently participate in Ecma and wishes to do so, please contact Ecma directly.
The following organizations and contributors are actively participating in the work of TC49/TG3:
Eiffel Software, Microsoft Corporation, Xamarin Inc., Kahu Research, and Twin Roots.
The following organizations have previously participated in the work of TC49/TG3 and their contributions are gratefully acknowledged:
Fujitsu Software, Hewlett-Packard, Intel Corporation, International Business Machines, ISE, Monash University, Netscape, OpenWave, Plum Hall, Sun Microsystems
Many of the organizations that are currently participating in the TC49/TG3 work have volunteered to mirror this site. The URLs for the mirror sites are: